STARK is a widely used transparent proof system that uses low-degree
tests for proving the correctness of a computer program. STARK consumes an
intermediate representation known as AIR that is more appropriate for programs
with a relatively short and structured description. However, an AIR is not able to
succinctly express non-equality constraints, leading to the incorporation of unwanted
We present the eSTARK protocol, a new probabilistic proof that generalizes the
STARK family through the introduction of a more generic intermediate representa-
tion called eAIR. We describe eSTARK in the polynomial IOP model, which com-
bines the optimized version of the STARK protocol with the incorporation of three
arguments into the protocol. We also explain various techniques that enhance the
vanilla STARK complexity, including optimizations applied to polynomial computa-
tions, and analyze the tradeoffs between controlling the constraint degree either at
the representation of the AIR or inside the eSTARK itself.

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Author Of this post: Héctor Masip-Ardevol

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